The Family de la Pole

The story of the de la Pole family – from ‘rags to rags’ over 6 generations between 1290 and 1525, is evidence that there were ways to escape the rigidity of medieval society. Their history is also evidence of the dangerous times in which they lived, and the curse of the blood of York. Not until the last of them was dead could the Tudors rest easy on their throne.


william-de-la-pole-baron-of-the-exchequerThe origins of the family are obscured by the destruction of their papers in the peasants revolt of 1381, but their fame was built on the foundations of the 14th century merchant class. William de la Pole (c.1290-1366) and his brother Richard (d.1345) built a wool business in Hull, Yorkshire. From there they became closely connected with the Royal court, lending large amounts of money which delivered interest as high as 22%. As Edward III’s finances suffered, so did the de la Pole’s, and indeed king and de la Poles fell out badly. But by the time of his death, William’s influence had seen the introduction of the staple and the royal and merchants monopolistic dominance of the wool trade; while the family fortunes rode high; William’s widow was living in comfort with over £200 a year, and his son William was called to parliament as a knight 5 months before William died, not doubt to his enormous satisfaction- the de la Poles had made the jump from Merchant to noble.

Michael de la Pole (1330-1389) behaved like a knight, and put his merchant background behind
him. He campaigned with Henry of Lancaster and Edward the Black Prince through the glory days of the michael-catherine-de-la-pole100 Years War. But it was under Edward III’s successor Richard II that Michael’s career really took off; his appointment as Chancellor in 1383 seemed to be completely uncontroversial, and in 1385 he was made Earl of Suffolk. But the war went from bad to worse; and royal finances went with it. Michael was fiercely loyal to the royal cause, and the Lords Appellant fixed on de la Pole as a proxy for the king. In the Wonderful Parliament of 1386, he was impeached, but none the less remained in royal favour, and so fell with the king when the Merciless Parliament of 1388 convicted him of treason, he was banished. Despite the height of his rise, de la Pole had not forgotten his roots in Hull, keeping a large house there and founding a house of the Poor Clares. None the less he died in Paris in 1389.

Parliament however had not declared his lands forfeit t his heirs, just his titles – and so his son, also Michael de la Pole (1367-1415) was able to inherit some of his lands. He kept close to the Lord Apellant, going on crusade to Lithuania with Thomas of Woodstock in 1391 for example; and he petitioned Richard to restore all his lands and titles. Richard didn’t like the company he kept – but finally in 1398 was allowed to become the 2nd Earl of Suffolk. He played little part in the early Lancastrian reigns, but in 1415 was part of Henry V’s campaign – a disastrous one for the de la Poles. Michael died of dystentary at Harfleur; his heir Michael became 3rd Earl of Suffolk super briefly before he died not long afterwards at Agincourt, ‘as strong, as active and as daring as any member of the court’.

His second son William de la Pole (1396-1450) rose to dominate the political life of the realm under alice-chaucerthe vacillating Henry VI from the 1430’s, and fought hard to serve his royal master, and was rewarded by being elevated to Duke of Suffolk. For a second time though, a de la Pole was to be sacrificed to save his king, and the angry lords sought a scapegoat for England financial and military failure. In 1450, Parliament impeached him, but it seemed as though Henry had repaid his loyalty by causing him only to be banished; but the lords took justice into their own hands, and William de la Pole’s head was found on the beaches of Kent. Accused of corruption and incompetence by contemporaries, in fact William seems to have been hardworking  and unlucky.

His son John, 2nd Duke of Suffolk (1442-1492) was a very different character, who seemed to spend most of his life trying to avoid the limelight; and being actively kept out of it by kings in Edward IV and Henry VII clearly none too impressed by his talents. None the less, his mother Alice Chaucer seemed determined to reconcile her family with the York family that had hounded her husband, elizabeth-of-york-duchess-of-suffolkmarrying John to Richard of York’s daughter Elizabeth in 1458. John followed her lead, loyal throughout to Edward IV  through Warwick’s campaign in 1470,and distrusted by the Readeption regime.

The trouble was that Suffolk had very little money – income from his estates in east Anglia and the Chilterns was well below the £1,000 needed for an earl. And also for some reason despite his loyalty to Edward, and despite his marriage to Edward’s sister, he never got much land or regard from Edward and was not part of the royal council.

One thing John and Elizabeth were good at though was having children – 11 as it happens, though not all of them lived to their majority. But through their mother, they all had a claim to the throne from the Yorkist side – though seemingly something of an irrelevance in 1471.

John de la Pole, earl of Lincoln (c.1460–1487) may have been made Richard III’s heir when Edward of Middleham died; but after Bosworth, appeared to be well favoured by and reconciled to the new regime under Henry VII. But in 1387 it was Lincoln who supported Lambert Simnel, and paid the price with his death at the Battle of Stoke.

Thereafter, the de la Poles – Edmund, 3rd Duke of Suffolk (1471-1513) and Richard ‘The White Rose’ (1480-1525) were the only remaining credible Yorkist descendants and threat to Henry VII. Edmund seems to have resented the mincemeat Henry VII made of his inheritance while a ward, and was anyway proud and impetuous. In 1499 he left the country, apparently seeking out Henry’s arch enemy Margaret of Burgundy – but was persuaded to return by the king’s agents. But in 1501 he left for good, going from place to place searching for a sponsor to allow him to launch an attempt on the throne of England, pursued relentlessly by Henry VII’s foreign policy and agents and running up massive debts. Eventually in 1506 Henry got his man, and incarcerated him in the Tower of London – there to lie until he was eventually executed when his brother Richard was recognised as king of England by Louis of France.

richard-de-la-poleRichard de la Pole seems to have been made of finer stuff than his brother. Richard was in exile with his brother, and in 1504 was left in poverty at Aachen as surety for his brother’s debts. But in 1506 he escaped to Hungary, and found a protector in King Ladislaus II, despite Henry’s demands for him to be handed over. Richard appears to have acquired a useful military reputation, and was a constant thorn in Henry VIII’s side as he had been in his father’s; in 1513 King Louis of France declared Richard king of England; in 1517 Richard was in Milan and Venice, and was rumored to be launching an invasion from Denmark. From 1522 he was back in Paris plotting with King Francis I. While the White Rose, as he was known, was at large, the threat of the house of York and the return of the wars of the Roses  was always credible. But at the Battle of Pavia in 1525, Richard died as his ally Francis I was defeated at the hands of the Emperor Charles V. The emperor’s messenger told Henry VIII how ‘The White Rose is killed in battle … I saw him dead with the others’, to which Henry responded in joy ‘All the enemies of England are gone’. 




67 thoughts on “The Family de la Pole

    1. I don’t think he was as it happens; he was descended from George Duke of Clarence, via Margaret Pole; who was executed by Henry VIII…

      1. Sorry for popping into this conversation years late, but they are actually distant relations! Both branches of the family are descended from the first Michael de la Pole.

  1. I have looked into this a great deal, and I am still confused how the de la Pole’s became nobility? They were rich, from Hull, and gave money to Edward III… So, how did they get that rich? Were they poor and were better fur trappers than other people in England? Were they scions of a noble family, just not males, hence they had money but no title? “how people became rich” or “how they became nobles” always confuses me.

    1. Hi Liam. The origins are a little obscure, but it seems that there were two brothers, William and Richard, who may have come from Ravenser. They originally seem to have made money in the Gascon wine trade – importing and selling wine. From there, they moved into the wool trade, and then, crucially for the family fortunes, he helped finance Edward III’s French campaigns. Actually as Edward defaulted on debts, this almost ruined him, but it had gained the family connections. One the basis of these connections, two of his sons were able to form knightly families. Michael was based in Henry of Lancaster’s household, became a solider, and by 1353 had been knighted. In reward for service to John of Gaunt, he was given land in fee, and he married a noble heiress, Katherine Wingfield. Given that he was a valued servant of royal masters (Gaunt) he became a royal servant to Richard II, Chancellor, and in 1385 was granted an Earldom by the king, of Suffolk. And thus the de la Pole’s had, through trade, service, and marriage risen to the top of the greasy pole (ha ha). Does that answer the question?

      1. LOL, this is so interesting because my 2nd great-grand mother was named “Catherine Wingfield” and I think this “Katherine Wingfield who married Michael De La Pole is an ancient relative of my family. All of the names in this story ring a bell. My mother was an American “Terrell” which our family knows had previously been “Tyrrell” in the UK. The funny thing is the same families from Essex and Suffolk counties met up in America and continued their family connections! The American Terrell’s married American Wingfield’s I bet if there were any De La Poles in America they would have continued that connection too!

        1. I know right! And I’m the descend of his nobility. I feel like a Kings Son. Got to love my Gpa!!! 🙂
          “RL Poole”

    2. Hi Liamcuff1,

      I am doing some ancestry research for a friend, last name Griffin and found a couple of amazing facts. I felt there was a connection between the Welsh princes of Wales and the Griffin family.
      1. A Sir Edward Griffin of Dingly claimed descent from Leolin, Prince of North Wales. Leolin being an acceptable spelling of Llewellyn.
      – This was attested to by a Sir Richard St George and the learned Camden, in the reign of Edward II.
      – I believe it was his son, Sir John Griffin who married the heiress of Favells of Weston Favell, Northamtonshire. If not Sir John it would be Sir Edward, his father. My Latin and Late Medieval English is no existent.
      – There may be a tie in to the Howard Dukes of Suffolk and the manner of Braybrook. Griffins held that for a while.
      – My Question: “How likely is it that Llewellyn the Last managed to give birth and then hide a son?” He could have fathered that son with a mistress. Between his wife’s de Montfort connections and the Mortimers, they were no strangers to a conspiracy. A son who would come of age and then lead the Welsh to independence would have been the plan.

      2). I have de la Poles emerging from the Welsh family tree. They stopped using the “Ap” and “Verch” and began using the de la Pole.

      I haven’t found the information I am looking for, but I am having fun.
      I need to go offline, but will be back later today if you have questions.

      Thank You,

    3. They weren’t fur trappers.., the wool trade was a way to make money then. You make money (lots of it), then you find a poor noble family who needs money and marry your family into it. People will remember the first generation but soon forget you were ‘trade’. It also helps improve the gene pool to have the nobility marry ‘commoners’ or ‘trade’.

  2. Are there any descendants of the de la Poles around today?
    Why was Margaret of the de la Pole family in the reign of Henry 8 executed? Was it to do with her support for Katherine and Mary?

    1. I am sure there are descendants of the de la Pole around – but not in the main line of the family; that died out with Richard de la Pole in 1525 I believe. Margaret Pole, oddly enough, was not descended from the de la Poles, but from George Duke of Clarence. She may well have been executed for her descent from the house of York. Equally it may have had as much to do with her son, Reginald Pole who had become a fervent opponent of the king and his break with Rome.

      1. During a family holiday in the west country in about 1957 my older sister, then about 15, met a boy and had a holiday romance. He was probably about 18, tall, dark and very handsome. His name was Roger de la Pole, and he said he was descended from the Tudor de la Poles. The romance did not continue after the holiday, in spite of my sister really liking him, because our very strict father forbade it. I think he didn’t like the fact that Roger was Catholic!! I often wonder what became of that very romantic looking young man!

        1. My grandfather was called Roger de la Pole so this might in fact be him! Sadly, he died some years ago in his 60s I’m afraid so I didn’t know him all too well. I share the same surname though.

      2. It is said that I am descented from the de la Pole family via there name change to Pettypoole then to Poole.

      3. Im related to the de la pole family through my great 10th grandfather Charles ii and his mistress Barbara Villiers. I bleed into the poles through the St. John and York line, being one of the last of the Plantaganates as a direct desendant of Richard Duke of York and his children.

    2. I am a direct descendant of Isabella who was the sister of William, 1st Duke of Suffolk, and daughter of Michael de la Pole, 2nd Earl. Isabella became Mrs Kett and she is my grandmother 17 generations past

    3. Just found this discussion

      I’m a descendant of Margaret de la Pole (daughter of William and Katherine Norwich), sister of Michael.

      Margaret married Sir Robert Neville. Their daughter Margaret married William Harrington. Their daughter Agnes Harrington married Alexander Radclyffe of Ordsall in Salford, and their daughter Joanna married John Talbot of Salesbury.

      I’m a descendant of this Talbot family who lived in the Salesbury / Blackburn area area till almost the present day. In fact I think there are still Talbots in the area today.

      A descendant of John and Joanna – Nancy Talbot married my 3 times great grandfather Joseph Banning who was Chief Clerk of Liverpool Post Office in the 19th century

      1. Me too, back through the Neville’s, Botelers, Keighley and Hoghton families. William de la Pole was my x19 Great Grandfather.

    4. to ina I am a direct decendent of

      Margaret de la pole who was a greart auntie to john earl of Lincoln

      what I would like to fine out is how I am related to john earl of Lincoln

      could you help me or could anyone else is he my cousin 12 time removed

      thanks trish also at the battle of towten I actually had a relative that ran with the king could anyone give me a bit more detail on this thank trish

  3. Thanks for the resource and I love the podcast. But I can’t find any mention of a King Ladislaus VI of Bohemia/ Hungary and Croatia. Is it possible you meant Vladislaus II?

  4. Have you read (H. A. Napier, Historical Notices of ‘Swyncombe and Ewelme (Oxford, 1858) I think it has quite a bit of family history of the Earls of Suffolk.

    1. Good lord! I had not, but it is all available of Google Books and how wonderful it is. This is, as it happens, my ‘hood, so I am doubly delighted. Thanks!

      1. Willaim’s daughter Lucia married Hericus “Henry Sacheverell of Ratcliffe” Sacheverell. If my family tree is correct I am related to her. She is my 14th great grandmother on my father’s side.

  5. Descended from the Tudor De La Poles?
    Yes there are lots of them of which I am one.
    I am descended from Richard De La Pole uncle of the Ist Earl. You might wish to read the history of a Manor called Edworth, the ownership of which passed down my line until my ancestors the Piggot family sold it in 1614. The estate came to them via the Peverell family aka Langton. Margaret Peverell was Richard’s wife. Their daughter Catherine de la Pole married John Bulloc(k)and the Edworth estate was given to them by William after his wife’s death.It passed by marriage down the line until 1614.
    End End

  6. But… where does the “de la” “of the” Poole come from. It sounds Spanish.
    Which, btw, the chief rabbi Marc of the Spanish and Portuguese Synagogue in NYC, has the surname ‘Angel de Sola Pool”.
    Makes me wonder if the origin of the name isn’t Sephardic..

    1. I do not know the original origin; but I imagine it’s French rather than Spanish – I could be wrong though, just guessing!

  7. I am a descendant of a a Sir Thomas of Cheshire De La Pole 1366-1429 whose wife was Lady Nanwich De La Pole 1374 to 1430. I am not sure that it is the same Thomas that you refer to or not. He was my 17th. Great-Great Grandfather. His father was Sir John De La Pole and his mother was Alice De La Pole. They De La Pole family goes back to at least France and Normandy prior to 1066. Have a great day.

  8. A publication which I came across 50/60 years ago in the library at Hull suggested that the family, when trading at Ravenser, were Powell and originated from Wales

  9. My family goes back to the 14th century in the french mountains named “Cévennes”. Between the towns of Puy en Velay and Uzès.
    There was an important medieval family based in the town of Bordeaux since the 12th century. The Colom/Colomb family. They were powerful merchants and sometimes mayors. They used to travel to London in order to lend money or some galées for the Plantagenet Kings, english Artistocrats or in another way to the Count of Toulouse. There’s a mention of a member of this family follower of a the king of England in an french expedition (Niort town).
    I can’t proove a familial connection between my Ancestors and this important family except the same name and the geographical proximity.
    My Ancestors lived with another family named “Folcher”. Few years ago, a Genealogist woman told me that this french family was related with the Plantagenet. Fulcher : Folc Fulk of Anjou…
    Then I’ve found your link about the De la Pole family. This is my first time I heard about this great family. You’ll find an extract below mentionning a man named Gilbert Colomb married with Catherine de la Pole Suffolk (16th century).
    Christopher Colombus had a poweful commercial network due to his familial background and partnerships and good friends across Europe.
    I can mention you the Caseneuve Casenove family mentionned in Bordeaux and domiciliated around the Court of the english Kings. They were bankers. Exactly like the two italian families less interesting than de la Pole family.
    This is so interesting to see that De la Pole family history looks like the Colomb/Colom family of Bordeaux.”Christopher Colombus was not this poor wool merchant of Genoa” said an Expert of this historical topic.
    Anyway William de la Pole with his trade of the wool and his successful ascention make me think to the Christopher Colombus profile and his Relatives.
    We’re ancientely related with the MacLean family and many other scottish, irish, english families. Some german families and northern italian families. Related with Prendergast people and also Berckeley people. Also with the Lynch family who used to deal with the wine trade in Bordeaux. An important medieval carrefour.

    Or, le fief de Brénieu était le fief de la famille de BRENIEU SUFFOLK. Les derniers représentants, Sibeud et Marguerite de La POLE SUFFOLK, eurent pour enfants :
    ‐ Catherine, ° 1540, mariée vers
    1555 avec Gilbert de COLOMB

    1. My Ancestor was Catherine de la Pole married to John Mewter of Satlfleethaven, Lincolnshire. Their daughter Katherine married Sir John Langton of Spilsby. Can anyone tell me where my Catherine de la Pole fits in the family

  10. After looking in my family line im related to the de la pole family 2 times reginald braybrooke /joan de la pole / de cobham / john da la pole , elizabeth of york , plantanagent , richards 3 s , sister . Very intresting indeed thanks for sharing .

  11. David- I am pleased to see that you have accepted my identification of the sitter in the painting reproduced above and sold at Christies a few years ago as Richard de la Pole and not,(as was previously supposed), Charles Duc de Bourbon.
    Kind regards

  12. I am descended from the de la Poole family who moved to America and became Pettypoole then Pool then Aldred then Peacock. Anybody else?

  13. Very interesting. Do you have any information about Lincoln’s wives? The DNB claims that he married twice, the second wife being the ‘daughter’ and/or ‘heir’ of Sir John Golafre. But he died in 1442, apparently without issue, though his lands passed to the de la Poles, presumably through an earlier Chaucer connection.

  14. What an interesting article, I will check out if my surname has some connection to the medieval de la Pole’s.

  15. Dear David,

    I have a forebear Roger Sir De la Pole Pewteres 1458 to 1524.Fressingfield Suffolk

    Do you know if he is connected to the De La Pole family.

    Kind regards
    Ross Betts Melbourne

    1. Hello. Just found this while researching my forebears. I have a Roger Pewteres 1450 – 1524 who married a Jone De La Pole Storye in Dennington Suffolk, England in 1473. They had a daughter Lady Margery Jone Catherine De La Pole Pewteres 1478 – 1542. I am trying to find out more about all of them and the connection to the De La Pole family. So did you ever find out more as a result of your post? I’d love to know!
      Thanks, Kate Hayhurst, Cornwall, England

  16. I would like to introduce my self as patricia

    and I am related to the de la pole family could any one give me any more information on them my 15 great auntie was elizabeth of York
    who had married john 2nd duke Suffolk. elizabeht was a sister to ricahrd the
    111 and Edward the iv. could anyone help me to figure out what reative would
    Richard the 111 be to me thank trish

  17. My wife’s French 3rd great aunt, Josephine Catherine Denise Carré, married Sir John George Reeves de la Pole, 8th Bart of Shute (in Devon) (1808-1874) But his ancestors all had the name Pole.

  18. Hi there I am in the USA, and I am related to Elizabeth de la pole through my mothers side. They are also from the house of Smith of Wales through her side and lord burley, counselor to queen Elizabeth 1. So yes we are in Michigan and new Jersey. Laura Bertsch-slauson

  19. Very interesting article. I have an observation. You have put that John de la Pole, Earl of Lincoln, was killed at the Battle of Stoke Field or East Stoke in 1387. I think its a typo for 1487.

    I have a question also about the mother of John, Duke of Suffolk, Alice Chaucer. Was she related to Geoffrey Chaucer?



    1. Hi LynMarie and darn you are right! I can no longer find the original though…I’ll try and amend when I get time. And yes! Alice Chaucer was Geoffrey’s descendant – granddaughter I think. Her (very grand) church is at a church nearby, Ewelme, once the caput of the Earls of Suffolk.

  20. Good evening one and all,

    I am myself in direct lineage of William de La Pole (1302-1366) and his son with Katherine; Sir Edmund De La Pole (1331-1419).

    20th, and 19th Great-Grandfathers on my mother’s side.

    Thank you for the fascinating read.

  21. After many hours research i found out my grand dads line is de cobham / john de la pole and elizabeth of york . and my grand mothers line With a irish twist of mcsweeney and pawson , Thats my fathers line and my mother is italian from the work house .

  22. Hi everyone. I am wondering if you can point me to the right direction. I come from one branch of the Pole family in Thurmaston. We were poor although there was a mention that members of another branch of the same family name were quite well off. My mother remembered the visit of her grandmother’s sister in the 1920s. Her grandmother was a Johanna O Connor whom my great grandfather met in North America in the 1890s. I am now 75 and have yet to find Johanna’s roots. She was born in County Clare and emigrated. She was a Catholic which seems to support the fact her siblings disapproved of her partner, a Protestant.

  23. Hello, I have heard a rumour that John de la Pole 1st Earl of Lincoln was buried with a willow stick through his chest. This was a sign he died a traitor at the Battle of Stoke Field in 1487.can go shed any light on this please?

  24. according to sir Geoffery Delapole was my 17th great grandfather im trying to get any information on him and his family. Any information would be helpful . Do you know if there are any books written about the Delapole family of lordington in Sussex England. thank you so much

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